• . Dr. Khadija Qamar Professor and Head of Anatomy Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan



Amongst culturally and educationally diverse student populations, the small group tutorial fosters integration socialization and strive to implement an approach to teaching based upon a fundamental commitment to student engagement and active learning. Consistent with Vygotsky views that social interaction with teachers and other learners play a fundamental role in the development of understanding. These sessions are learner centred and based upon constructivist approach utilizing many principles of adult learning. Students’ management of their own learning during the sessions, is helpful in achieving the goal of producing self-directed, life-long and active learners. By encouraging vertical and horizontal integration, these sessions provided opportunities for knowledge application and contextual learning. Social interactions and a collaborative rather than competitive environment encourages teamwork and improves communication skills leading to better working relationships.

Small group teaching sessions are the best methods since these involve learner’s participation, interaction, task achievement, reflection, improvement of interpersonal and communication skills, presentation skills, attitude of tolerance, and responsibility of their own learning. The ideal group size should be less than 20 so that everybody will have a chance to participate in the discussion. Effective discussion requires communication, which is not only verbal but also non-verbal involving, for example, gestures, facial expressions, eye contacts andpostures.


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How to Cite

Qamar . DK. TOOLKIT FOR LEARNING. Pak J Phsyiol [Internet]. 2016 Dec. 31 [cited 2024 Jul. 23];12(4):1-2. Available from: