• Ayesha Sardar Department of Physiology, Rehman College of Dentistry, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Inayat Shah Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Omar Malik Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Rashid Mahmood Department of Physiology, Rehman Medical College, Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Aamir Asmatullah Department of Physiology, Kabir Medical College, Gandhara University, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Owais Qaisar




Glucagon-like Peptide 1, Chewing time, Satiety, High Protein Meal, VAS, LMS


Background: Chewing or mastication process affects satiety as well as satiety regulating hormone Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1). Proteins have the highest satiating effects among the macronutrients. This study explored the association of chewing with satiety and GLP-1 in participants consuming high-protein meal. Methods: Fifteen healthy volunteers, aged 25-35 years were enrolled through random sampling. Effects of chewing on postprandial satiety and plasma GLP-1 was examined through quasi-experimental study conducted in Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, from Jan to Mar 2023. Three visits were designed with one week wash-out period. Satiety and GLP-1 were compared among normal, fast, and slow chewing conditions, while providing high protein meal. Subjective satiety was assessed via visual analogue scale (VAS) and labelled magnitude scale (LMS), while serum GLP-1 levels were analysed through ELISA at baseline, 30, 120 and 240 min in each visit. Results: The participants had a mean chewing time of 793.66±311 second at normal rate. Mean chewing time was decreased to 496.60±135.82 second during fast chewing, while significantly increased to 1459.66±400.83 second during slow chewing. A comparison of satiety at different chewing rates revealed that slow chewing significantly reduced hunger and enhanced fullness (p<0.05), relative to normal and fast chewing, at 240 minutes (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in plasma GLP-1 levels at any time intervals (p>0.05). Conclusion: Satiety is significantly influenced by chewing and number of chews per bite of a high protein meal, whereas postprandial plasma GLP-1 levels show no significant differences across different chewing rates.

Pak J Physiol 2024;20(2):31-35


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How to Cite

Sardar A, Shah I, Malik O, Mahmood R, Asmatullah A, Qaisar O. EFFECTS OF CHEWING TIME OF HIGH PROTEIN MEAL ON SATIETY AND GLP-1 HORMONE. Pak J Phsyiol [Internet]. 2024 Jun. 30 [cited 2024 Jul. 21];20(2):31-5. Available from: https://pjp.pps.org.pk/index.php/PJP/article/view/1632