• Fatima Qayyum Department of Endocrinology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan
  • Sarwar Malik CDA Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Fayyaz Hussain Malik CDA Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Sidra Qayyum Malik Health Department, Government of KPK, Pakistan
  • Hina Rani Inayat CDA Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Fauzia Aitazaz Department of Physiology, AJK Medical College, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan



Diabetes Mellitus, Newly diagnosed, Socio-demography, Dyslipidemia, HbA1c


Background: Five-hundred-thirty-six million adults are living with diabetes worldwide, 33 million in Pakistan ranking 3rd in position globally. We aimed to see the sociodemographic, baseline clinical and metabolic profile of newly diagnosed patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Sociodemographic data of 98 patients aged ?18 years presenting to Endocrinology Department of CDA Hospital Islamabad was collected on a self-developed questionnaire. The inclusion criteria were newly diagnosed T2DM patients, seeking medical advice to initiate therapy. Baseline clinical and metabolic profiles were recorded. Patients already on therapy were excluded. The data was analysed using SPSS-25. Results: Mean age of the patients was 48.92±12.46 years with female predominance (54, 55.1%). Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 29.15±4.99 Kg/m2, waist circumference 102.69±10.19 Cm, and HbA1c was 9.62±2.19%. Eighty-one (82.7%) patients belonged to families with monthly income PKR 30,000–40,000 (lower socio-economic status), 59 patients had <7 years of schooling (60.2%), 51 patients had a negative family history of T2DM (52%), 79 patients were diagnosed within the last 6 months (80.6%), and 44 patients did not have co-morbidities (44.9%). Osmotic symptoms were present in 77 (77.8%) of patients at presentation. Complications of T2DM were present in 18 (18.4%) patients at baseline. Conclusion: T2DM is more prevalent in middle aged, overweight, female patients belonging to low socioeconomic status and have osmotic symptoms as main presenting complaint, HbA1c of 9.62%, and 52% patients had a negative family history of T2DM. The complications of T2DM were seen only in 18% at presentation.

Pak J Physiol 2024;20(2):19-23


Download data is not yet available.


Alam S, Hasan MK, Neaz S, Hussain N, Hossain MF, Rahman T. Diabetes Mellitus: insights from epidemiology, biochemistry, risk factors, diagnosis, complications and comprehensive management. Diabetology 2021;2(2):36–50.

Stojanovi? M, Cvetanovi? G, An?elkovi? Apostolovi? M, Stojanovi? D, Ran?i? N. Impact of socio-demographic characteristics and long-term complications on quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cent Eur J Public Health 2018;26(2):104–10.

Ling WW, Valliappan VN, Chue LM, Aminudin SN, Jern SC, Theng CA. Prevalence of microvascular complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary healthcare clinics. Malays J Med Health Sci 2020;16(2):217–43.

Oh TJ, Lee JE, Choi SH, Jang HC. Association between body fat and diabetic peripheral neuropathy in middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a preliminary report. J Obes Metab Syndr 2019;28(2):112–7.

Eberhardt MS, Casagrande SS, Cowie CC. Sociodemographic characteristics of persons with diabetes. In: Cowie CC, Casagrande SS, Menke A, Cissell MA, Eberhardt MS, Meigs JB, (Eds). Diabetes in America. 3rd ed, Chapter 8. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US); 2018.

Kriska AM, Rockette-Wagner B, Edelstein SL, Bray GA, Delahanty LM, Hoskin MA, et al. The impact of physical activity on the prevention of type 2 diabetes: evidence and lessons learned from the diabetes prevention program, a long-standing clinical trial incorporating subjective and objective activity measures. Diabetes Care 2021;44(1):43–9.

Feller S, Boeing H, Pischon T. Body mass index, waist circumference, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: implications for routine clinical practice. Dtsch Ärztebl Int 2010;107(26):470–6.

Numan A, Khawaja KI, Qureshi AB, Yousaf MS, Rabbani I, Zaneb H, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy in diagnosed diabetes mellitus type-2 individuals in Lahore, Pakistan. Pak J Zool 2020;52(3):1217–20.

Tönnies T, Baumert J, Heidemann C, von der Lippe E, Brinks R, Hoyer A. Diabetes free life expectancy and years of life lost associated with type 2 diabetes: projected trends in Germany between 2015 and 2040. Popul Health Metr 2021;19(1):38.

Eberhardt MS, Casagrande SS, Cowie CC. Sociodemographic characteristics of persons wit diabetese. In: Diabetes in America. 3rd ed. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (US), Bethesda (MD);2018. PMID: 33651553.

Andrade KA. Abdominal circumference cut-off point: an overview. Arch Venezolanos de Farmacol Terapéutica (Venezolanos Arch Pharmacol Ther) 2022;41(4):299–306.

Rahman MA, Dhira TA, Sarker AR, Mehareen J. Validity and reliability of the Patient Health Questionnaire scale (PHQ-9) among university students of Bangladesh. PLoS One 2022;17(6):e0269634.

Zar A, Ali SS. Visceral adiposity index: a simple tool for assessing risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2022;34(2):345–50.

Lv F, Cai X, Hu D, Pan C, Zhang D, Xu J, et al. Characteristics of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese older adults: a National Prospective Cohort Study. J Diabetes Res 2019;2019:5631620.

Das R, Singh O, Thakurta RG, Khandakar MR, Ali SN, Mallick AK, et al. Prevalence of depression in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and its impact on quality of life. Indian J Psychol Med 2013;35(3):284–9.

Bin Ahmed S, Zoheb MA. A Study on metabolic syndrome with diabetes mellitus. J Pharm Negat Results 2023;14(2):1470–3.

Shahwan MJ, Jairoun AA, Farajallah A, Shanabli S. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and factors affecting lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019;13(4):2387–92.

Islam MT, Talha MT, Shafiq SS, Mazumder T, Gupta RD, Siraj MS. Prevalence, pattern, and correlates of dyslipidemia in Bangladeshi individuals. J Clin Lipidol 2023;17(6):788?99.

Sarfraz M, Sajid S, Ashraf MA. Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in in hyperglycaemic patients and its associated factors among Pakistani population. Saudi J Biol Sci 2016;23(6):761?6.

Jatoi NA, Said AH, Al-Ghamdi MS, Al-Abdulmhsin MF, Bin-Jaban RA, Al-Tayeb JA, et al. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type-II in Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Cureus 2022;14(10):e29808.

Barker MM, Zaccardi F, Brady EM, Gulsin GS, Hall AP, Henson J, et al. Age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factor profile: A pooled analysis. World J Diabetes 2022;13(3):260–71.

Agarwal AK, Singh M, Arya V, Garg U, Singh VP, Jain V. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its correlation with coronary artery disease and its risk factors. J Assoc Physicians India 2012;60(7):28–32.

Zhen Q, Yao N, Chen X, Zhang X, Wang Z, Ge Q. Total body adiposity, triglycerides, and leg fat are independent risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract 2019;25(3):270–8.




How to Cite

Qayyum F, Malik S, Malik FH, Malik SQ, Inayat HR, Aitazaz F. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE 2 DIABETICS —A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. Pak J Phsyiol [Internet]. 2024 Jun. 30 [cited 2024 Jul. 21];20(2):19-23. Available from: