• Ghazala Fazaldad International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Mussarat Jabeen Khan Department of Psychology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Minhal Chaudhary King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan



Integrated Self, Relapse Vulnerability, Psychological Adjustment, Drug Addicts, Addiction


Background: Drug addiction can cause a physical and biological harm, causing problems in family structure, and can contribute to the delinquency and high rates of crimes in a society. The aim of this study was to test the association between integrated self, relapse vulnerability and psychological adjustment. Method: To measure the integrated self, a scale was constructed in first phase of the study. In second phase 400 psychometric properties of new scale were determined. Integrated Self Scale, AWARE Questionnaire and Psychological Adjustment Scales were used. Sample comprised of 200 male drug addicts using purposive convenient sampling. Drug addicts suffering from any psychotic illness were excluded from the sample. Results: Findings indicate a significant negative relationship of integrated self with relapse vulnerability and positive relationship with psychological adjustment. The integrated self acts as a predictor of relapse vulnerability and psychological adjustment. Graduate drug addicts have integrated self, low relapse vulnerability and show better psychological adjustment as compared to undergraduate drug addicts when compared on educational level. Conclusion: This study is beneficial in finding ways to enhance self-integration of drug addicts so that their drug relapse can be reduced and in turn they can experience better psychological adjustment.

Pak J Physiol 2023;19(4):42–5


Download data is not yet available.


Zahavi D. Subjectivity and selfhood: Investigating the first-person perspective. MIT Press; 2008.

Baumann N, Kaschel R, Kuhl J. Affect sensitivity and affect regulation in dealing with positive and negative affect. J Res Personal 2007;41(1):239–48.

Wildgoose A, Clarke S, Waller G. Treating personality fragmentation and dissociation in borderline personality disorder: A pilot study of the impact of cognitive analytic therapy. Br J Med Psychol 2001;74(Pt 1):47–55.

Gara MA, Rosenberg S, Woolfolk RL. Patient identity in major depression. Depression 1993;1(5):257–62.

Bovasso GB. Cannabis abuse as a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158(12):2033–7.

Brandon TH, Vidrine JI, Litvin EB. Relapse and relapse prevention. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2007;3:257–84.

Haque A, Mohamed Y, (Eds). Psychology of personality: Islamic perspectives. Cengage Learning Asia; 2009.

Pahl K, Brook JS, Koppel J. Trajectories of marijuana use and psychological adjustment among urban African American and Puerto Rican women. Psychol Med 2011;41(8):1775–83.

Pollock PH, Broadbent M, Clarke S, Dorrian A, Ryle A. The Personality Structure Questionnaire (PSQ): A measure of the multiple self states model of identity disturbance in cognitive analytic therapy. Clin Psychol Psychother 2001;8(1):59–72.

Khalili S, Murken S, Reich KH, Shah AA, Vahabzadeh A. Invited Essay: Religion and mental health in cultural perspective: observations and reflections after the first international congress on religion and mental health, Tehran, 16–19 April 2001. Int J Psychol Religion 2002;12(4):217–37.

Muhammad NH, Omar SH, Thoalim AS, Mohamad N. Prevention of addiction based on Islamic ways. Int J Acad Bus Soc Sci 2019;9(2):865–75.

Nashee Q, Amjad N, Rafique R, Naz A. Perceive social support and relapse proneness in persons with substance use disorders. J Addict Res Theor 2014;5(3):111–20.

Sabir F. Academic self-concept and achievement among university student as related to their psychological adjustment. M. Phil Thesis. National Institute of Psychology. Quai-e-Azam University. Islamabad. 1999.

Yusuf H. (Ed). Purification of the heart: Signs, symptoms and cures of the spiritual diseases of the heart. eBooks2go Inc; 2012.

Kulesza M, Larimer ME, Rao D. Substance use related stigma: what we know and the way forward. J Addict Behav Ther Rehabil 2013;2(2):782.

Kelly JF, Dow SJ, Westerhoff C. Does our choice of substance-related terms influence perceptions of treatment need? An empirical investigation with two commonly used terms. J Drug Issue 2010;40(4):805–18.

Rhodes T, Lilly R, Fernández C, Giorgino E, Kemmesis UE, Ossebaard HC, et al. Risk factors associated with drug use: the importance of ‘risk environment’. Drugs Educ Prev Policy 2003;10(4):303–29.




How to Cite

Fazaldad G, Khan MJ, Chaudhary M. RELAPSE VULNERABILITY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT AMONG DRUG ADDICTS: ROLE OF INTEGRATED SELF AS A PREDICTOR. Pak J Phsyiol [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 31 [cited 2024 Jul. 23];19(4):42-5. Available from: