• Mehvish Ashfaq Department of Physiology, HITEC-Institute of Medical Sciences, Taxila, Pakistan
  • Sidra Jabeen Department of Physiology, HITEC-Institute of Medical Sciences, Taxila, Pakistan
  • Sadia Mubarak Department of Physiology, Islamabad Medical and Dental College, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Amina Rasul Department of Physiology, Watim Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Sidra Hamid Department of Physiology, Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Ambreen Javed Department of Biochemistry, HITEC Institute of Medical Sciences, Taxila, Pakistan
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, T2DM, Fast twitch muscle, Muscle Fiber, Fatigue, Slow twitch muscle, Muscle


Background: The metabolic disorder of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has deleterious effects on skeletal muscle contractile functions. This study aimed to compare parameters of fatigue between slow and fast skeletal muscles of male and female type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. Methodology: This was a quasi experimental study conducted at Army Medical College Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health, Islamabad. Forty Sprague Dawley rats in good health were split into groups I (Control) and II (Diabetics) of 20 rats each. Each group had 10 male and 10 female rats. Diabetic groups were given intra-peritoneal streptozotocin (STZ), 35 mg/Kg body weight on 15th day. Control groups were fed a normal diet and diabetic rats were given diet with high fat. On 21st day body weight, blood glucose and triglyceride/high density lipoprotein ratio were estimated to confirm extraction of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Intact Soleus and Extensor Digitorium Longus muscles were removed and fixed in organ bath system having Krebs-Ringer buffer solution and connected to data acquisition unit (iWorx®) to study their fatigability parameters. Independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Slow and fast skeletal muscles in diabetic rats showed reduction in resistance to and recovery from fatigue. Fatigue parameters between male and female diabetic rats revealed no significant differences. Conclusion: Fatigue parameters do not differ between male and female diabetic rats.

Pak J Physiol 2023;19(1):7‒10


Mohammad FH, Nanji K. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among the Pakistani population: Results of a cross-sectional survey. Cureus 2018;10(8):e3144.

Adnan M, Aasim M. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult population of Pakistan: a meta-analysis of prospective cross-sectional surveys. Ann Glob Health 2020;86(1):7.

American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2014;37(Suppl 1):S81–90.

Virgen-Ortiz A, Apolinar-Iribe A, Muñiz J. Gender-effect on the contractile properties of skeletal muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Musculoskel Neuronal Interact 2018;18(2):255–61.

Pataky MW, Yu CS, Nie Y, Arias EB, Singh M, Mendias CL, et al. Skeletal muscle fiber type-selective effects of acute exercise on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin resistant, high fat-fed rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019;16(5):E695–706.

Head SI, Arber MB. An active learning mammalian skeletal muscle lab demonstrating contractile and kinetic properties of fast-and slow-twitch muscle. Adv Physiol Educ 2013;37(4):405–14.

Aleem SB, Hussain MM, Farooq Y. Serum levo-carnitine levels and skeletal muscle functions in type 2 diabetes mellitus in rodents. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2013;23(2):132–6.

Duan Y, Li F, Tan B, Yao K, Yin Y. Metabolic control of myofibers: promising therapeutic target for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity Rev 2017;18(6):647–59.

Rasul A, Latif N, Ali S, Ashfaq M, Mubarak S, Rehman I. Taurine supplementation normalizes skeletal muscle functions in type 2 diabetes rats. Pak Armed Forces Med J 2020;29(1):224–9.

Ghelani H, Razmovski‐Naumovski V, Nammi S. Chronic treatment of (R)‐α‐lipoic acid reduces blood glucose and lipid levels in high‐fat diet and low‐dose streptozotocin‐induced metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Sprague‐Dawley rats. Pharmacol Res Perspect 2017;5(3):e00306

Engel H, Xiong L, Reichenberger MA, Germann G, Roth C, Hirche C. Rodent models of diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus: A literature review and selection guide. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019;13(1):195–200.

Jaishree V, Narsimha S. Swertiamarin and quercetin combination ameliorates hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in wistar rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2020;130:110561.

Coppey LJ, Shevalye H, Obrosov A, Davidson EP, Yorek MA. Determination of peripheral neuropathy in high‐fat diet fed low‐dose streptozotocin‐treated female C57Bl/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. J Diabetes Investig 2018;9(5):1033–40.

Imam KA, Sarwar M, Wali U, Siddique L, Perveen S. Gender and contractile functions of slow and fast skeletal muscles in streptozotocin induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. Romanian J Diabetes Nutr Metab Dis 2012;19(4):417–24.

Dial AG, Monaco CMF, Grafham GK, Patel TP, Tarnopolsky MA, Hawke TJ. Impaired function and altered morphology in the skeletal muscles of adult men and women with type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021;106(8):2405–22.

Bibi Y, Hussain MM, Naz R. Effect of levocarnitine on endurance capacity in type-2 diabetic rats. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2013;25(3-4):64–7.

Orlando G, Balducci S, Bazzucchi I, Pugliese G, Sacchetti M. The impact of type 1 diabetes and diabetic polyneuropathy on muscle strength and fatigability. Acta Diabetol 2017;54(6):543–50.


Download data is not yet available.
How to Cite
Ashfaq M, Jabeen S, Mubarak S, Rasul A, Hamid S, Javed A. PROPERTIES OF FATIGUE BETWEEN SLOW AND FAST MUSCLES OF MALE AND FEMALE DIABETIC RATS. PJP [Internet]. 31Mar.2023 [cited 28May2023];19(1):7-0. Available from: