• Alina Mehwish Rehman Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Sara Asmat Muhammad College of Medicine, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Sidra Humayun Muhammad College of Medicine, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Sohail Iqbal Muhammad College of Medicine, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Shakirullah Khan Muhammad College of Medicine, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Mohsin Ali Muhammad College of Medicine, Peshawar, Pakistan
Keywords: sul1, dfrA1, tetA, tetB, ermB, antimicrobial resistance, Peshawar


Background: The intense use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of different infections resulted in bulk manufacturing of antimicrobial drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. The wastewater of these industries contains traces of raw form of antimicrobial agents which drains into sewerage system of the area, the exposure to which results in the development of resistant microbes. The goal of our study was to determine the frequency of antimicrobial-resistance genes (ARGs) in E. coli present in effluents of pharmaceutical industries in Hayatabad Industrial State, Peshawar. Methods: In this qualitative analysis 5 wastewater samples each were obtained from effluents of 5 different pharmaceutical industries situated at Hayatabad Industrial Estate, Peshawar. E. coli in these effluents was cultured and identified through biochemical tests and Gram staining. DNA was extracted and ARGs such as sul1, dfrA1, tetA, tetB and ermB were analyzed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The results were tabulated in Microsoft Excel 2016. Results: E. coli were detected in the samples with citrate utilization and indole and triple sugar iron tests. The effluents contained resistant strains of E. coli which have developed ARGs against major antibacterials such as sul1 for sulfonamides (84%), dfrA1 for trimethoprim (80%), tetA and tetB for tetracyclines (80%) while ermB for erythromycin (72%). Conclusion: The wastewater effluents of pharmaceutical industries may be one of the major sources of development of ARGs in microbes.

Pak J Physiol 2021;17(4):23‒6


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How to Cite
Mehwish A, Asmat S, Humayun S, Iqbal S, Khan S, Ali M. FREQUENCY OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANT GENES IN E. COLI STRAINS PRESENT IN EFFLUENTS OF PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES IN PESHAWAR. PJP [Internet]. 31Dec.2021 [cited 28May2023];17(4):23-6. Available from:

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