Immunophenotyping of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia through Flowcytometry in Children
Background: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Immunophenotyping by flowcytometry is vital for WHO classification of acute leukaemia. The objective of this study was to determine the immunophenotyping of ALL in paediatric patients through flowcytometry and to determine the frequency of each type of ALL through flowcytometry. Methods: This study was conducted in Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar. One year retrospective data from Laboratory reports of blood parameters and flowcytometry were evaluated. Frequencies for qualitative variables like age and gender, and mean and standard deviation were calculated for quantitative variables like haemoglobin level, total leukocyte count, and platelet count. Results: Out of 32 ALL patients 22 (68.7%) had B-ALL and 10 (31.3%) had T-ALL. Eleven (34%) patients were females and 21 (66%) were males, 4 (12.5%) were from age group 1–5 years, 15 (47%) had age group >5–10 years, and 13 (41%) had age group >10–15 years. In B-ALL the expression of CD markers CD10, cCD79a, CD19 and CD20 was 91%, 77%, 68% and 14% respectively. In T-ALL, cCD3 was expressed in 100%, CD7 in 20%; cCD79a, CD19, and CD20 were 0%. Conclusion: ALL is more common in male children with peak age >5–10 years. B-ALL is more frequent than T-ALL. Patients mostly present with low haemoglobin (Hb), high total leukocyte count (TLC) and low platelet count. CD10, CD19, cCD79a were the most expressed markers in B-ALL, and cCD3 was expressed in all patients of T-ALL.
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