Comparison of bone mineral density in type II diabetics and non-diabetics using quantitative computed tomography
Background: Relationship between osteoporosis and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complex. Although many studies have been conducted, still it remains a controversial subject. Osteoporosis is diagnosed by measuring bone mineral density and the current gold standard is quantitative computed tomography (QCT). This study aimed to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) in type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics using QCT, and to correlate BMD with duration of disease, Glycated Haemoglobin A (HbA1c) level, and Serum Insulin level. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between Aug 2016 and Dec 2019 at Radiology Department, Mayo Hospital Lahore. One hundred type 2 DM and 100 healthy individuals were included. BMD, HbA1c, Fasting Blood Sugar and serum insulin levels were measured in all. BMD, HbA1c and Serum Insulin were compared between the cases and controls. Moreover, the correlation between bone mineral densities, duration of disease, HbA1c and serum Insulin level was assessed. Results: A significant difference between HbA1c, fasting blood sugar levels and serum insulin levels of the two groups was noted. However, no significant difference was observed in the QCT scoring of the groups. Osteoporosis was diagnosed in 19 diabetics and 12 healthy individuals. BMD changes significantly correlated with the duration of illness and HbA1c. There was no significant correlation and between BMD and Serum Insulin Levels. Conclusion: BMD shows a significant correlation with duration of diabetes and HbA1c. These factors play a negative impact on BMD in T2DM. There was no significant correlation between serum insulin and BMD.
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