• Hassan Shahid Associate Professor, Head of Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry & Allied Sciences, Isra University
  • Sadia Hassan Department of Oral Biology
  • Ujala Faisal Student of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry and Allied Sciences, Isra University, Hyderabad, Pakistan
Keywords: Glycated haemoglobin, Glycaemic control, diabetes mellitus, periodontal health


Background: Diabetes is one of the main causes of periodontitis. People who do not maintain good oral hygiene or good metabolic control of their diabetes are more prone to get periodontitis especially those people who are of old age and people who have had diabetes for many years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and correlate the extent and severity of glycaemic control with periodontal disease. Method: Sixty patients visiting the dental OPD of Isra dental college and Isra University (Diabetic OPD) from February to July 2016 were recruited. Diabetic patients who had no evidence of systemic disease other than diabetes and who had advanced periodontitis (30% or more of the teeth examined having >4 mm probing depth) were included. Glycaemic control was measured using glycated haemoglobin whereas periodontal status was measured using plaque and gingival indices according to the standard protocols. A well-designed proforma was used to record demographic characteristics, oral hygiene maintaining methods, medical history, drug history and current status of periodontium on the basis of indices i.e., gingival index and plaque index. All the readings were taken at day one and after three months. Results: Of the 60 subjects; 36 (60%) were male and 24 (40%) were female with a mean age of 48.30±8.718 years. There was a significant and positive correlation between glycated haemoglobin and gingival index at day one and after three months (r=0.62, p=0.001 and r=0.58 and p=0.001 respectively). However, plaque index was correlated with glycated haemoglobin only after three months (r=0.15, p=0.02). Conclusion: Glycated haemoglobin and periodontitis are positively correlated implying that diabetic control may improve periodontal status as well.

Pak J Physiol 2018;14(2):28–30


1. Mealey BL, Rees TD, Rose LF Grossi SG. Systemic factors impacting the periodontium. In: Rose LF, Mealey BL, Genco RJ, Cohen DW, (Eds). Periodontics Medicine, Surgery, and Implants. St. Louis: Elsevier Mosby; 2004. p.790–845.
2. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004;27(5):1047–53.
3. Mansour AA, Abd-Al-sada N. Periodontal disease among diabetics in Iraq. Med Gen Med 2005;7(3):2.
4. Orbak R, Simsek S, Orbak Z, Kavrut F, Colak M. The influence of type-1 diabetes mellitus on dentition and oral health in children and adolescents. Yonsei Med J 2008;49(3):357–65.
5. Negrato CA, Tarzia O, Jovanovič L, Chinellato LE. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus. J Appl Oral Sci 2013;21(1):1–12.
6. Naruse K. Diabetes and periodontal disease: What should we learn next? J Diabetes Investig 2014;5(3):249–50.
7. Loe H. The Gingival Index, the Plaque Index and the Retention Index Systems, J Periodontol 1967;38:610–6.
8. Leong P, Tumanyan S, Blicher B, Yeung A, Joshipura K. Periodontal disease among adult, new-immigrant, Chinese Americans in Boston with and without diabetes –a brief communication. J Public Health Dent 2007;67(3):171–3.
9. Tenovuo J, Alanen P, Larjava H, Viikari J, Lehtonen OP. Oral health of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Scand J Oral Sci 1986;94(4):338–46.
10. Almas K, Al-Qahtani M, Al-Yami M, Khan N. The relationship between periodontal disease and blood glucose level among type II diabetic patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2001;2(4):18–25.
11. Kawamura M, Fukuda S, Kawabata K, Iwamoto Y. Comparison of health behaviour and oral/medical conditions in non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetics and non-diabetics. Aust Dent J 1998;43(5):315–20.
12. Bartold P, Seymour G, Cullinan M, Westerman B. Effect of increased community and professional awareness of plaque control on the management of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Int Dent J 1998;48(3 Suppl 1):282–9.
13. Syrjälä AM, Kneckt MC, Knuuttila ML. Dental self-efficacy as a determinant to oral health behaviour, oral hygiene and HbA1c level among diabetic patients. J Clin Periodontol 1999;26(9):616–21.
14. Kneckt MC, Syrjälä AM, Laukkanen P, Knuuttila ML. Self-efficacy as a common variable in oral health behavior and diabetes adherence. Eur J Oral Sci 1999;107(2):89–96.
15. Sandberg GE, Sundberg HE, Fjellstrom CA, Wikblad KF. Type 2 diabetes and oral health: a comparison between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2000;50(1):27–34.
16. Borrell L, Kunzel C, Lamster I, Lalla E. Diabetes in the dental office: using NHANES III to estimate the probability of undiagnosed disease. J Periodontal Res 2007;42:559–65.


Download data is not yet available.
How to Cite
Shahid H, Hassan S, Faisal U. CORRELATION OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL WITH SEVERITY AND EXTENT OF PERIODONTAL STATUS. PJP [Internet]. 30Jun.2018 [cited 4Dec.2020];14(2):28-0. Available from: