FASTING BLOOD GLUCOSE AND URINARY KETONE IN THE THREE TRIMESTERS OF NORMAL PREGNANCY
Background: Normal pregnancy is a physiological condition in which there is a balanced feto-maternal homeostasis with overall aim of achieving a successful period of gestation. Increase in blood glucose with increasing trimester of pregnancy and use of fatty acid as an alternative source of energy is well documented. However, the progressive increase in blood glucose as pregnancy advances has not been related to urinary ketone. This study was designed to examine the blood glucose and urine of apparently healthy non-pregnant and pregnant women in the three trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 200 volunteers (50 non-pregnant women and 50 pregnant women in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected from the thumb by a lancet prick and examined using a glucometer. Urine samples were collected from each subject into a sterile universal bottle and analysed for Ketone among other parameters such as Blood, Protein, Nitrite, Glucose, Urobilinogen, Ascorbic acid, and pH. Results: Fasting blood glucose increased as pregnancy advanced; 97.27±3.06 (third trimester) >92.03±3.01 (second trimester) >86.10±2.83 (first trimester). The fasting blood sugar for the non-pregnant control subjects (84.07±1.36) was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the pregnant women. The 24% of the subjects in the third trimester had ketonuria, none of the other group of subjects had ketone in their urine. Conclusion: The increased blood glucose concentration in the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with acompensatory source of energy from fatty acid metabolism as evidenced by ketonuria.
Pak J Physiol 2018;14(1):16–8
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