• Iram Khadim Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore, Pakistan
  • Adnan Yaqoob Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore, Pakistan
  • Kousar Parveen Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore, Pakistan
  • Sadia Khan Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), Spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD), nurses practices


Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a common obstetric haemorrhage. That is one of the leading causes for maternal mortality. This study aims to assess the effect of clinical interventions on nursing care practices regarding primary postpartum haemorrhage. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in Gynaecology Department of Allied Hospital, Faisalabad. Eighty-five license holder nurses who work in morning, and evening shifts, aged 25‒50 were included. Nurses who had PPH training and/or teach obstetrics, gynaecology and midwifery students, were excluded. Purposive sampling technique was used. A 16-items adopted validated checklist was used to assess the practices of nurses pre- and post-educational training about primary PPH. Results: Demographic and skill related variables were checked for frequency and percentages. All of nurses (n=85) had poor practices before clinical interventions. In post-intervention assessment, results revealed that 11 (12.9%) nurses had good and 74 (87.3%) showed excellent practices, and no one had poor practices. Conclusion: Educational trainings had prominent effect in improving skill performances and practices of maternity nurses regarding the management of labour to prevent primary post-partum haemorrhage.

Pak J Physiol 2022;18(2):51–3


Knoll W, Phelan R, Hopman WM, Ho AM, Cenkowski M, Mizubuti GB, et al. Retrospective review of time to uterotonic administration and maternal outcomes following post-partum haemorrhage. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2022;44(5):490–5.

Mohamad KG. Maternity outcome of primary post-partum haemorrhage cases in El-Minia Maternity Hospital 2016–2017: 2 years study. Evid Based Womens Health J 2018;8(2):185–8.

Joshi B, Shetty S, Moray K, Chaurasia H, Sachin O. POSC50 Cost-Effectiveness of Addition of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid to Management of Primary Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Indian Public Health Settings. Value Health 2022;25(1):S95–6.

Hoffman MK, Goudar SS, Kodkany BS, Metgud M, Somannavar M, Okitawutshu J, et al. Low-dose aspirin for the prevention of preterm delivery in nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy (ASPIRIN): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2020;395(10220):285–93.

Joshi BN, Shetty SS, Moray KV, Sachin O, Chaurasia H. Cost-effectiveness of uterine balloon tamponade devices in managing atonic post-partum haemorrhage at public health facilities in India. PLoS One 2021;16(8):e0256271.

Sprigg N, Flaherty K, Appleton JP, Al-Shahi Salman R, Bereczki D, Beridze M, et al. Tranexamic acid for hyperacute primary IntraCerebral Haemorrhage (TICH-2): an international randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 superiority trial. Lancet 2018;391(10135):2107–15.

Moores J, de Jesus GA. Management of post‐partum haemorrhage in the Timor Leste National Ambulance Service. Emerg Med Australas 2018;30(6):814–9.

Gayet-Ageron A, Prieto-Merino D, Ker K, Shakur H, Ageron FX, Roberts I, Effect of treatment delay on the effectiveness and safety of antifibrinolytics in acute severe haemorrhage: a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data from 40 138 bleeding patients. Lancet 2018;391(10116):125–32.

Abd Elhakm EM, Elbana HM. Effect of simulation based training on maternity nurses’ performance and self-confidence regarding primary postpartum haemorrhage management. Am J Nurs Res 2018;6(6):388–97.

Ibrahim Abdelgadir N, Livinia Brier S, Ibrahim Abdelgadir W, Alsadeg Mohammed S. The effect of training program on midwives practice concerning timely management of postpartum haemorrhage at Aljenena town Dafur. SUST J Nat Med Sci 2020;21(1):49–56.

Shakur H, Roberts I, Fawole B, Chaudhri R, El-Sheikh M, Akintan A, et al. Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2017;389(10084):2105–16.

Bogne V, Kirkpatrick C, Englert Y. Simulation training in the management of obstetric emergencies. A review of the literature. Rev Med Brux 2014;35(6):491–8.

van der Nelson HA, Draycott T, Siassakos D, Yau CW, Hatswell AJ. Carbetocin versus oxytocin for prevention of post-partum haemorrhage at caesarean section in the United Kingdom: an economic impact analysis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2017;210:286–91.

Brenner A, Ker K, Shakur-Still H, Roberts I. Tranexamic acid for post-partum haemorrhage: What, who and when. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2019;61:66–74.


Download data is not yet available.
How to Cite
Khadim I, Yaqoob A, Parveen K, Khan S. EFFECTS OF CLINICAL INTERVENTIONS ON NURSING CARE PRACTICES REGARDING INCIDENCE OF PRIMARY POST-PARTUM HAEMORRHAGE. PJP [Internet]. 30Jun.2022 [cited 26Nov.2022];18(2):51-3. Available from: http://pjp.pps.org.pk/index.php/PJP/article/view/1449