• Shagufta Manzoor Department of Anatomy, AJK Medical College, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7719-5470
  • Najma Baseer Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Sarmud Latif Awan Department of Surgery, AJK Medical College, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan
  • Zilli Huma Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Irum Gillani Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Ziyad Afzal Kiyani Department of Surgery, AJK Medical College, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan
  • Humza Farooq Department of Surgery, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan
Keywords: Paraphenylenediamine, Sprague Dawley, teratogenic, topical application, hair dye, fetus


Background: Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is an organic compound used in hair dye. It causes local and systemic side-effects. Not much is known regarding its foetotoxic effects. This study aimed at determining the teratogenic effects of topically applied PPD. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at IBMS, Khyber Medical University, and Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar over a period of 6 months. Twenty healthy Sprague Dawely female pregnant rats were divided into 5 groups, i.e., positive control (Group A), control (Group B), and 3 experimental groups (C, D, and E). For group A, 0.1 ml of distilled water was applied topically on back of each rat. For positive control group B, 0.5 ml of dye containing 3% PPD was applied, while for group C, D and E, 1, 2 and 3 mg/Kg dose of PPD respectively was applied for 30 minutes daily. Skin was washed followed by rats mating. After successful fertilization, same doses were repeated for 20 days. Animals were sacrificed and foetuses were examined for skeletal abnormalities and hepatic changes. Skin biopsy of adult rats was examined for any changes. Result: Topically applied PPD resulted in significant teratogenic effects on foetal liver in a dose dependent manner. However, no significant teratogenic effect was observed on foetal skeleton (p=0.075). Topical PPD showed increased epidermal thickening and keratinization on adult rats skin. Conclusion: PPD has significant dermal effects on adult rats and teratogenic effects on liver of rat foetuses but no significant effects were observed on foetal skeleton.

Pak J Physiol 2022;18(2):15‒21


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How to Cite
Manzoor S, Baseer N, Awan S, Huma Z, Gillani I, Kiyani Z, Farooq H. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF TOPICALLY APPLIED PARAPHENYLENEDIAMINE ON THE RAT FOETUS. PJP [Internet]. 30Jun.2022 [cited 26Nov.2022];18(2):15-1. Available from: http://pjp.pps.org.pk/index.php/PJP/article/view/1412