• Shahid Fareed Accident and Emergency Department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Shah Hussain Accident and Emergency Department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Shahida Batool Department of Pharmacology, Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Asma Amir Department of Anatomy, Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Nayab Khattak Department of Anatomy, Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Mohsin Ali Muhammad College of Medicine, Peshawar, Pakistan
Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, hypomagnesemia, smoking, risk factor


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a type of immune system disorders that badly affect patient’s quality of life. The onset of disease constitutes a complex pathological process, and several mechanisms and triggers are proposed in the development of this disease. Magnesium (Mg) is an important trace element that plays a role in normal functioning of immune system. The deficiency of magnesium is found to be related to abnormal T-cells functions leading to secretion of pro-inflammatory chemicals such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and histamine. Similarly, hypomagnesaemia also causes an increase in intracellular calcium level that leads to hyperactivation of phagocytes which are the first line of defence of our immune system. Tobacco smoking is a cause of hypomagnesemia in susceptible patients. The association between tobacco smoking and onset of rheumatoid arthritis is statistically significant in those who are smoking, even for less than 10 years.

Pak J Physiol 2021;17(2):46–50


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Fareed S, Hussain S, Batool S, Amir A, Khattak N, Ali M. ROLE OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN CAUSING HYPOMAGNESEMIA AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. PJP [Internet]. 30Jun.2021 [cited 29Sep.2022];17(2):46-0. Available from:

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