RISK FACTORS AND PARENTS’ ATTITUDE FOR CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH ASTHMA AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Background: Asthma is commonly prevalent disease in children. There has been increasing prevalence and incidence of asthma in children in last few decades. Risk factors and parent’s attitude towards therapy matters in management. The objective was to assess the risk factors and parents’ attitude for children presenting with asthma. Methods: This cross sectional study was done at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. History was taken about risk factors and associated myths. Duration of asthma, visits per year to clinic/hospital, tobacco smoke exposure, pets, fur toys, wood/coal burning, carpets in rooms, perfumes/powder use was documented. Parents’ attitude towards use of spacer and inhaler was documented with specific questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS-20 and p<0.05 was taken as significant. Results: There were 136 patients, 93 (68.4%) males and 43 (31.6%) females. Mean age was 7.3±3.13 years. Most (80.1%) patients were <10 years old. Patient visits per year ranged from 2 to 15 visits with mean of 5.97±3.02 visits per year. Intermittent asthma was seen in 8.8% and persistent asthma was seen in 66.9% patients. The most common risk factor was use of perfume in 48.5% and family history in 65.4% patients. Parents’ misconception towards inhaler use was noted in 38.2% patients. Younger children are at more risk of having asthma symptoms with exposure to wood/coal smoke and perfume powder exposure (p=0.04). Conclusion: Family history of asthma with perfume/powder exposure and wood/coal smoke exposure are major risk factors in children. Parents’ misconception is a hurdle to timely management.
Pak J Physiol 2022;18(2):54–7
Nasir NA. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Parents of Asthmatic Children in an Asthma Clinic in Baghdad. Iraqi Postgrad Med J 2017;16(4):419–26.
Papi A, Brightling C, Pedersen SE, Reddel HK. Asthma. Lancet 2018;391(10122):783–800.
Khan AA, Tanzil S, Jamali T, Shahid A, Naeem S, Sahito A, et al. Burden of asthma among children in a developing megacity: childhood asthma study, Pakistan. J asthma 2014;51(9):891–9.
Cleveland KK. Evidence-based asthma education for parents. J Spec Pediatr Nurs 2013;18(1):25–32.
Zhao J, Shen K, Xiang L, Zhang G, Xie M, Bai J, et al. The knowledge, attitudes, and practices of parents of children with asthma in 29 cities of China: A multi-center study. BMC Pediatr 2013;13:20.
Waqar MA, Muneeba K, Hussain SM, Saleem A, Shaukat S, Sarwar S, et al. Prevalence of allergy and asthma in school children of Islamabad, Pakistan. World Appl Sci J 2009;6(3):426–32.
Zhao J. Relationship of allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis. J Appl Clin Pediatr 2004;19(12):1020–2.
Hui RWH. Inhaled corticosteroid-phobia and childhood asthma: Current understanding and management implications. Paediatr Respir Rev 2020;33:62–6.
Majeed R, Rajar UD, Shaikh N, Majeed F, Arain AA. Risk factors associated with childhood asthma. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2008;18(5):299–302.
Afzal M, Qureshi SM, Hussain S, Tariq NA, Khan MB, et al. Risk factors associated with childhood asthma among children aged 1–12 years in Rawalpindi. Pak Armed Forces Med J 2011;61(3):372–6.
Karunasekera KAW, Perera KPJ, Perera MTRP, Abeynarayana J. Genetic and environmental risk for asthma in children aged 5–11 years. Sri Lanka J Child Health 2005;34:79–83.
Khan IM, Ashfaq MW, Butt M, Afzal A. Association of Childhood Asthma Control with Parental Socioeconomic status. J Islamabad Med Dent Coll 2018;7(2):123–7.
Kamran A, Hanif S, Murtaza G. Risk factors of childhood asthma in children attending Lyari General Hospital. J Pak Med Assoc 2015;65(6):647–50.
Basharat S, Jabeen U, Zeeshan F, Bano I, Bari A, Rathore AW. Adherence to asthma treatment and their association with asthma control inchildren. J Pak Med Assoc 2018;68(5):725–8.
Simba J, Marete I, Waihenya R, Kombe Y, Mwangi A, Mburugu P, et al. Knowledge and perceptions on childhood asthma among care-takers of children with asthma at a National Referral Hospital in Western Kenya: a descriptive study. Afri Health Sci 2018;18(4):965–71.
Al-Anazi A, Al Moamary M, Ismaeli T, Alanazi AN, Olayan L, Alanazi AM, et al. Asthma in the pediatric population: Level of perception among the parents and guardians. Int J Med Public Health 2015;5:14–8.
Noureddin AA, Shaaban KM, Mohamed SOO, Abdalla AA, Mahmoud AAA, Salman MST. The knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) of mothers of asthmatic children toward asthma in Khartoum asthma clinics. Sci Rep 2019;9(1):12120.
Ankermann T, Spindler T, Gerstlauer M, Schmidt S. Allergies and vaccination: a myth demystified. Allergo J Int 2018;27:234–43.
Labuschagne IL, van Niekerk E. Diet and childhood asthma: review. S Afr Fam Pract 2016;58(Suppl 1):S9–11.
Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Physiology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Pakistan Journal of Physiology, Pak J Physiol, PJP is FREE for research and academic purposes. It can be freely downloaded and stored, printed, presented, cited and quoted with full reference of, and acknowledgement to the PJP.