Patterns of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients: role of patients’ perception, motivations, and socioeconomic status

  • Qasir Abbas Department of Applied Psychology, GC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Khawar Bilal Baig Ripha Institute of Clinical and Professional Psychology, Ripha University Lahore, Pakistan
  • Zoobia Ramzan Institute of Behavioural Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Farkhanda Emad Institute of Behavioural Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Mafia Shahzadi Department of Applied Psychology, GC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Shoaib Ahmad Institute of Behavioural Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
Keywords: Positive and Negative Symptoms, Perception, Motivation, Patients, Schizophrenia


Background: Treatment of Schizophrenia requires resources and strict adherence from the patients, both of which are usually lacking. This study investigated the severity of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms along with the impact of patients’ perception, motivations and socioeconomic status and treatment outcomes for treating patients with schizophrenia disorder. Methods: A total of 110 patients, 58.2% males and 41.8% females were included. Patients were divided into low, middle and high income status. Patients classified into group getting treatment immediately, delayed and reluctant toward treatment. After one month of the medication, patients were assessed using PANSS. Results: Prevalence of positive symptoms (54.5–72.7%), negative (53.6–71.8%) and general psychopathological symptoms were found (24.5–80%). Significant difference was found between patients with positive and negative perception toward treatment on PANSS. Patients with high income status were found significantly different from middle and low income status on PANSS (i.e., F=166.04, p<0.001; F=34.32, p<0.001; F=47.26, p<0.001 respectively). Patients who got treatment immediately were found significantly different as compared to those who delayed and showed reluctant attitude toward treatment on PANSS (i.e., F=194.75, p<0.001; F=142.19, p<0.001; F=66.37, p<0.001 respectively). Conclusion: The frequency of symptoms was found higher. Patients’ positive perception, motivation and financial resources play an important role in treatment adherence.

Pak J Physiol 2020;16(3):29–34


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Abbas Q, Baig K, Ramzan Z, Emad F, Shahzadi M, Ahmad S. Patterns of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients: role of patients’ perception, motivations, and socioeconomic status. PJP [Internet]. 30Sep.2020 [cited 8Mar.2021];16(3):29-4. Available from: