Patterns of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients: role of patients’ perception, motivations, and socioeconomic status

  • Qasir Abbas Department of Applied Psychology, GC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Khawar Bilal Baig Ripha Institute of Clinical and Professional Psychology, Ripha University Lahore, Pakistan
  • Zoobia Ramzan Institute of Behavioural Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Farkhanda Emad Institute of Behavioural Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Mafia Shahzadi Department of Applied Psychology, GC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Shoaib Ahmad Institute of Behavioural Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
Keywords: Positive and Negative Symptoms, Perception, Motivation, Patients, Schizophrenia

Abstract

Background: Treatment of Schizophrenia requires resources and strict adherence from the patients, both of which are usually lacking. This study investigated the severity of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms along with the impact of patients’ perception, motivations and socioeconomic status and treatment outcomes for treating patients with schizophrenia disorder. Methods: A total of 110 patients, 58.2% males and 41.8% females were included. Patients were divided into low, middle and high income status. Patients classified into group getting treatment immediately, delayed and reluctant toward treatment. After one month of the medication, patients were assessed using PANSS. Results: Prevalence of positive symptoms (54.5–72.7%), negative (53.6–71.8%) and general psychopathological symptoms were found (24.5–80%). Significant difference was found between patients with positive and negative perception toward treatment on PANSS. Patients with high income status were found significantly different from middle and low income status on PANSS (i.e., F=166.04, p<0.001; F=34.32, p<0.001; F=47.26, p<0.001 respectively). Patients who got treatment immediately were found significantly different as compared to those who delayed and showed reluctant attitude toward treatment on PANSS (i.e., F=194.75, p<0.001; F=142.19, p<0.001; F=66.37, p<0.001 respectively). Conclusion: The frequency of symptoms was found higher. Patients’ positive perception, motivation and financial resources play an important role in treatment adherence.

Pak J Physiol 2020;16(3):29–34

References

Sullivan PF, Daly MJ, O’Donovan M. Genetic architectures of psychiatric disorders: the emerging picture and its implications. Nat Rev Genet 2012;13:537–71.

Wittchen HU, Jacobi F, Rehm J, Gustavsson A, Svensson M, Jönsson B, et al. The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011;21:655–79.

Prince M, Patel V, Saxena S, Maj M, Maselko J, Philips MR, et al. No health without mental health. Lancet 2007;370:859–77.

World Health Organization. Key Facts, 2018. Retrieved on April, 12, 2019. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/schizophrenia

World Health Organization. Schizophrenia. 2011. Available at: http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/schizophrenia/en/

Sherer R. Mental Health Care in the Developing World. Psychiatric Times 2002;XIX(1).

Ghuloum S, Bener A, Abou-Saleh MT. Prevalence of mental disorders in adult population attending primary health care setting in Qatari population. J Pak Med Assoc, 2011;61(3) 216–21.

Rabbani MG, Alam MF, Ahmed HU, Sarkar M, Islam MS, Anwar N, . Prevalence of mental disorders, mental retardation, epilepsy and substance abuse in children. Bang J Psychiatry 2009;23(1):11–54.

Gadit, A, Khalid N. State of mental health in Pakistan - education, service and research. Karachi: Corporate Printers; 2002.p. 34-42.

Huxley A, Fonseca AS. The relationship between anhedonia and positive ,negative, and general symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia. Issues Ment Health Nurs 2014;35:122–6.

Malaspina D, Walsh-Messinger J, Gaebel W, Smith LM, Gorun A, Prudent V, et al. Negative symptoms, past and present: a historical perspective and moving to DSM-5. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2014;24:710–24.

Tandon R, Gaebel W, Barch DM, Bustillo J, Gur RE, Heckers S, et al. Definition and description of schizophrenia in the DSM-5. Schizophr Res 2013;150(1):3–10.

Wykes T, Huddy V, Cellard C, McGurk SR, Czobor P. A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: methodology and effect sizes. Am J Psychiatry 2011;168:472–85.

Rushworth MF, Mars RB, Sallet J. Are there specialized circuits for social cognition and are they unique to humans? Curr Opin Neurobiol 2013;23:436–42.

Foussias G, Agid O, Fervaha G, Remington G. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: clinical features, relevance to real world functioning and specificity versus other CNS disorders. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2014;24:693–709.

Fusar-Poli P, Carpenter WT, Woods SW, McGlashan TH. Attenuated psychosis syndrome: ready for DSM-5.1? Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2014;10:155–92.

Choi J, Mogami T, Medalia A. Intrinsic motivation inventory: an adapted measure for schizophrenia research. Schizophr Bull 2010;36:966–76.

Caqueo-Urízar A, Boyer L, Baumstarck K, Gilman SE. The relationships between Patients’ and Caregivers’ Beliefs about the Causes of Schizophrenia and Clinical Outcomes in Latin American Countries. Psychiatry Res 2015;229:440–6.

Palmer BA, Ponkratz VS, Bostwick JM. The lifetime risk of suicide in schizophrenia: reexamination. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62(3):247–53.

Mazumder AH, Alam MT, Yoshii H, Kortesluoma RL, Mullick MSI, Chowdhury WA. Positive and Negative Symptoms in Patients of Schizophrenia: A Cross Sectional Study Acta Medica Int 2015;2(1):48–52.

Theodoridou A, Rössler W. Ddisease burden and disability-adjusted life years due to schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. In: Victor RP, Ronald RW, editors. Handbook of disease burdens and quality of life measures. Pt. 2, 2.6. New York: Springer; 2010.p. 1493–1507

Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using Multivariate Statistics. Boston: Pearson; 2013.

Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opfer LA. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1987;13(2):261–76.

Buckley PF, Noffsinger SG, Smith DA, Hrouda DR, Knoll JL 4th. Treatment of the psychotic patient who is violent. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2003;26:231–72.

Kessler RC, Greenberg PE, Mickelson KD, Meneades LM, Wang PS, The effects of chronic medical conditions on work loss and work cut back, J Occup Environ Med 2001;43:218–25.

Gururaj G, Girish N, Isaac MK. Mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders: Strategies towards a systems approach. In: NCMH Background papers–Burden of disease in India. New Delhi: Ministry of Health & Family Welfare; 2005. p. 226–50.

Zagozdzon P, Wrotkowska M. Religious Beliefs and Their Relevance for Treatment Adherence in Mental Illness: A Review. Religions 2017;8:150; doi:10.3390/rel8080150

Medalia A, Choi J. Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. Neuropsychol Rev 2009;19:353–64.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Published
2020-09-30
How to Cite
1.
Abbas Q, Baig K, Ramzan Z, Emad F, Shahzadi M, Ahmad S. Patterns of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients: role of patients’ perception, motivations, and socioeconomic status. PJP [Internet]. 30Sep.2020 [cited 8Mar.2021];16(3):29-4. Available from: http://pjp.pps.org.pk/index.php/PJP/article/view/1097