Genetic risk factors associated with gallbladder carcinoma

  • Saara Mudassir Khan Assistant Professor
  • Jibran Sualeh Muhammad Assistant Professor Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah
  • Asra Khan Research Assistant, Dept of Biological and Biomedical science.
  • Muhammad Rizwan Khan Associate Professor Department of surgery, AKU
  • Kulsoom Kulsoom Ghias Associate Professor Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Keywords: Gallbladder carcinoma, genetic mutations, KRAS, p53, p16, retinoblastoma, RB


Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive biliary tract cancer with wide geographic diversity. Various genetic modifications of GBC, including mutations in p53, KRAS, p16 and retinoblastoma (RB) gene. Mutations in p53 lead to carcinoma, while point mutations in KRAS leads to hyperplasia. KRAS mutations are often found in both pancreatico-biliary ducts junction and in neoplastic loci in gallbladder polyps. The 5-year survival rate for overall GBC patients is <1%. GBC is crucial for diagnostic and prognostic markers and potential drug targets. Ovid-MEDLINE, PubMed, CINHAL and Google Scholar databases were searched using keywords gallbladder carcinoma, neoplasia, tumour, tumor, adenocarcinoma, biliary tract carcinoma, gene mutations, KRAS, p53, RB, and p16. Ten out of 470 research articles were finally included. It was observed that loss of heterogeneity and mutations of KRAS, p53, p16 and RB involve in the disruption of cell cycle leading to continuous cell division and cancer.

Pak J Physiol 2019;15(4):66−70


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How to Cite
Khan S, Muhammad J, Khan A, Khan M, Kulsoom Ghias K. Genetic risk factors associated with gallbladder carcinoma. PJP [Internet]. 30Dec.2019 [cited 20Oct.2021];15(4):66-0. Available from: