HOSPITAL INFECTION CONTROL IN CAMBODIA

  • Florian H Pilsczek MRC Centre for Developmental and Biomedical Genetics, The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Keywords: Hospital infection control, Cambodia, low-income country, Infection, Health Hazard, Hospital waste disposal, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Microorganism

Abstract

Background: Hospital infection control and research is established in most large hospitals in industrialised nations. Cambodia is a low-income country in Southeast Asia. Methods: Published infection control studies in Cambodia are reviewed in this study, and observational study data from a hospital in Cambodia are reported. Results: No studies regarding the transmission of helminthic infections (e.g., Ascaris lumbricoides), malaria, vector-borne viral infections (e.g., Dengue), or food borne diseases (e.g., Entamoeba histolytica) in hospital were identified. In the studied hospital airborne transmission precautions were limited to use of surgical masks. Contact precautions for diarrhoea and droplet precautions for meningitis were not used. Sharps container and educational wall posters were used. Safe needle handling procedures were limited and intravenous medications were administered by trainee nurses. Conclusion: Potential routes of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among patients and from patients to healthcare workers and visitors were observed.

Keywords: hospital infection control, Cambodia, low-income country

Pak J Physiol 2017;13(2):29–33

References

1. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, Health Care Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. 2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Health Care Settings. Am J Infect Control 2007;35:S65–164.
2. Cruz AT, Medina D, Whaley EM, Ware KM, Koy TH, Starke JR. Tuberculosis among families of children with suspected tuberculosis and employees at a children's hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:188–90.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Potential transmission of viral hepatitis through use of stored blood vessels as conduits in organ transplantation–Pennsylvania, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2011;60:172–4.
4. Apisarnthanarak A, Mundy LM. Infection control for emerging infectious diseases in developing countries and resource-limited settings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:885–7.
5. Buchy P, Mardy S, Vong S, Toyoda T, Aubin JT, Miller M, et al. Influenza A/H5N1 virus infection in humans in Cambodia. J Clin Virol 2007;39:164–8.
6. Nickerson EK, Wuthiekanun V, Kumar V, Amornchai P, Wongdeethai N, Chheng K, et al. Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in children in Cambodia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2011;84:313–7.
7. Swaddiwudhipong W, Peanumlom P. A case of nosocomial cholera during a community outbreak in a Thai-Myanmar border area. J Med Assoc Thai 2010;93:1112–4.
8. Pilsczek FH. Infection control in developing countries: Phnom Penh and Kabul. Am J Infect Control 2009;37:81–2.
9. Petitet PH. Do reproductive health care practices create a risk of HIV, HVB, and HVC transmission? Case studies in Cambodia. Sante 2010;20:3–8.
10. Hancart-Petitet P, Dumas C, Faurand-Tournaire AL, Desclaux A, Vong S. Social and cultural dimensions of hygiene in Cambodian health care facilities. BMC Public Health 2011;11:83.
11. Vong S, Perz JF, Sok S, Som S, Goldstein S, Hutin Y, et al. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002. BMC Public Health 2005;5:56.
12. Tamura M, Eam KK, Kimura K, Yoshihara N, Miura T, Yanai H, et al. National HIV prevalence surveillance among TB patients through periodic surveys: experience in Cambodia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2008;12:20–5.
13. O’Donnell MR, Jarand J, Loveday M, Padayatchi N, Zelnick J, Werner L, et al. High incidence of hospital admissions with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis among South African health care workers. Ann Intern Med 2010;153:516–22.
14. Breathnach AS, de Ruiter A, Holdsworth GM, Bateman NT, O’Sullivan DG, Rees PJ, et al. An outbreak of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in a London teaching hospital. J Hosp Infect 1998;39:111–7.
15. Sar B, Keo C, Leng C, Saman M, Min DC, Chan S, et al. Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance and HIV co-infection in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2009;40:104–7.
16. Jensen PA, Lambert LA, Iademarco MF, Ridzon R, CDC. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care settings, 2005. MMWR Recomm Rep 2005;54:1–141.
17. Johnston CP, Qiu H, Ticehurst JR, Dickson C, Rosenbaum P, Lawson P, et al. Outbreak management and implications of a nosocomial norovirus outbreak. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:534–40.
18. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses in outpatient settings–New York, Oklahoma, and Nebraska, 2000–2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003;52:901–6.
19. Pilsczek FH. Research as a visiting doctor in Afghanistan and Cambodia. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2001;10:583–5.
Published
2017-06-30
How to Cite
1.
Pilsczek F. HOSPITAL INFECTION CONTROL IN CAMBODIA. PJP [Internet]. 30Jun.2017 [cited 16Jul.2018];13(2):29-3. Available from: http://pjp.pps.org.pk/index.php/PJP/article/view/48