• Raheela Kanwal Isra Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isra University, Islamabad campus, Islamabad
  • Tahir Masood Isra Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isra University, Islamabad campus, Islamabad
  • Waqar Ahmed Awan Isra Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isra University, Islamabad campus, Islamabad
  • Mirza Shamim Baig Isra Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isra University, Islamabad campus, Islamabad
  • Muhammad Naveed Babur Isra Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isra University, Islamabad campus, Islamabad


Background: Primary dysmenorrhoea is health related problem within females with high prevalence affecting different aspects of their life and their productivity. The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of stretching exercises done during symptomatic and asymptomatic phase of menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) (double blinded) study was carried out at Royal group of colleges Gujranwala, Pakistan. Sixty six students with confirmed diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhoea were included through non-probability convenience sampling. The students were randomly assigned to two equal (n=33) groups: Asymptomatic (A) and Symptomatic (B). Each student was assessed for pain and associated symptoms of dysmenorrhoea by using numeric pain rating scale and Daily record of severity of problems (DRSP). Stretching exercises were performed thrice per week for group A which did exercises during asymptomatic phase and same exercises were done twice a day for group B only in symptomatic days. Both groups did exercises for three months. Data was taken at baseline and post menstrual phase of three successive menstrual cycles. The data was analyzed using SPSS 20. An independent samples t test was used to compare both groups and repeated measures ANOVA was used to find the intervention-based effects within each group. Results: Mean age of students was 21.29±2.60 (Year), mean weight was 52.70±4.81 (Kg), mean age at menarche was 13.18±1.11 (Year) and mean BMI was 16.87±0.81 (Kg/m2). Both groups were comparable at baseline for age, weight, BMI and age at menarche as p>0.05. Significant changes for pain and associated symptoms were found within each group (p<0.01). However, both groups have non-significant difference with each other (p>0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that stretching exercises in symptomatic phase and asymptomatic phase are equally effective to relieve pain and associated symptoms of Primary Dysmenorrhoea.

Keywords: Primary dysmenorrhoea, stretching exercises, numeric pain rating scale, DRSP

Pak J Physiol 2017;13(2):6–10

Author Biography

Waqar Ahmed Awan, Isra Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isra University, Islamabad campus, Islamabad

Assistant Professor, Isra Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isra University, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad.


1. Brown MA, Woods NF. Correlates of Dysmenorrhea. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 1984; 13 (4):259-66.
2. Jamieson DJ, Steege JF. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic pain, and irritable bowel syndrome in primary care practices. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1996; 87(1):55-8.
3. Dawood MY. Dysmenorrhea. The Journal of reproductive medicine. 1985; 30(3):154-67.
4. Dawood MY. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and changing attitudes toward dysmenorrhea. The American journal of medicine. 1988; 84(5):23-9.
5. Dawood MY. Dysmenorrhea and ibuprofen. Am J Med. 1984; 77:87-94.
6. Goldstein-Ferber S, Granot M. The association between somatization and perceived ability: roles in dysmenorrhea among Israeli Arab adolescents. Psychosomatic medicine. 2006; 68(1):136-42.
7. Rizk, Diaa EE, et al. "Prevalence and impact of premenstrual syndrome in adolescent schoolgirls in the United Arab Emirates." ActaobstetriciaetgynecologicaScandinavica 85.5 (2006): 589-598.
8. Shahr-jerdy, Shahnaz, Rahman Sheikh Hosseini, and MaghsoudEivaziGh. "Effects of stretching exercises on primary dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls."Biomedical Human Kinetics 4 (2012): 127-132.
9. Kanwal R, Masood T, Awan WA, Babur MN, Baig MS. Effectiveness of TENS versus stretching exercises on primary dysmenorrhea in students. International journal rehabilitation sciences. 2016 2; 05.
10. Daley A. The role of exercise in the treatment of menstrual disorders: the evidence.
11. Dawood MY. Primary dysmenorrhea: advances in pathogenesis and management. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2006; 108 (2):428-41.
12. Brown J, Brown S. Exercise for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;2.
13. Ronkainen H, Pakarinen A, Kirkinen P, Kauppila A. Physical exercise-induced changes and season-associated differences in the pituitary-ovarian function of runners and joggers. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1985; 60(3):416-22.
14. Lee YM. Effects of aroma-foot-reflexology on premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea and lower abdominal skin temperature of nursing students. Korean journal of adult nursing. 2011; 23(5):472-81.
15. Chen Y, Shang GD, Fu GB. Effect of massage on hemodynamics parameters of uterine artery and serum prostaglandin in treating patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine. 2011; 31(10):1355-8.
16. Yaghmaei M, Mokhtari M, Mohammadi M. The comparison of the therapeutic effect of Mefenamic acid and Mefenamic acid plus vitamin E on severity of pain in primary dysmenorrhea. Journal of Reproduction & Infertility. 2005; 6(2).
17. Harlow SD, Park M. A longitudinal study of risk factors for the occurrence, duration and severity of menstrual cramps in a cohort of college women. Bjog: An International Journal Of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 1996; 103(11):1134-42.
18. Kaur S, Shanmugam S, Kang MK. To compare the effect of stretching and core strengthening exercises on Primary Dysmenorrhea in Young females. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2014; 1(13):22-32.
19. Vaziri F, Hoseini A, Kamali F, Abdali K, Hadianfard M, Sayadi M. Comparing the effects of aerobic and stretching exercises on the intensity of primary dysmenorrhea in the students of universities of Bushehr. Journal of family & reproductive health. 2015; 9(1):23.
20. Ortiz MI, Cortés-Márquez SK, Romero-Quezada LC, Murguía-Cánovas G, Jaramillo-Díaz AP. Effect of a physiotherapy program in women with primary dysmenorrhea. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2015; 194:24-9.
21. .Abbaspour Z, Rostami M, Najjar SH. The effect of exercise on primary dysmenorrhea. Journal of Research in Health Sciences. 2006; 6(1):26-31.
22. Koushkie Jahromi M, Gaeini A, Rahimi Z. Influence of a physical fitness course on menstrual cycle characteristics. Gynecological endocrinology. 2008; 24(11):659-62.
23. Araújo LM, Silva JM, Bastos WT, Ventura PL. Pain improvement in women with primary dysmenorrhea treated by Pilates. Revista Dor. 2012; 13(2):119-23.
24. Steege JF, Blumenthal JA. The effects of aerobic exercise on premenstural symptoms in middle aged women: a preliminary study. J psychosom res. 1993; 37:127–33.
25. Ghanbari Z, Dehghan Manshavi F, Jafarabadi M. The effect of three months regular aerobic exercise on premenstrual syndrome. J Family Reprod Health. 2008; 2:167–71.
26. Israel, R.G., M. Sutton, K.F. O’brien, 1985. Effects of aerobic training on primary dysmenorrhea symptology in college females. J Am Call Health, 33(6): 241-4.
27. Izzo, A., D. Labrila, 1991. Dysmenorrhea and sports activity in adolescents. ClinExpobstet Gynecol., 18: 109-116.
28. Mastrangelo, M.A., M.L. Galantino, L. House, 2007. Effects of yoga on quality of life and flexibility in menopausal women: a case series. Explore (NY). 3(1): 42-5.
29. Daley AJ. Exercise and primary dysmenorrhoea: a comprehensive and critical review of the literature. BJOG 2010; 117(2):222-224
30. Billig HE. Dysmenorrhea: the effects of a postural defect. Arch Surgery. 1943;46:611–613
31. Golomb, L.M., A.A. Solidum, M.P. Warren, 1998. Primary dysmenorrhea and physical activity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 30: 906-909.
32. Noorbakhsh M, Alijani E , Kohandel M , Mehdizadeh Toorzani Z, Mirfaizi M, Hojat S. The Effect of Physical Activity on Primary Dysmenorrhea of Female University Students. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2012; 17(10):1246-52.
33. Gamit KS, Sheth MS, Vyas NJ. The effect of stretching exercise on primary dysmenorrhea in adult girls. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014;3: 549–51.
34. Farinatti PT, Brandao C, Soares PP, Duarte AF. Acute effects of stretching exercise on the heart rate variability in subjects with low flexibility levels. J Strength Cond Res 2011; 25:1579–1585.


Download data is not yet available.
How to Cite
Kanwal R, Masood T, Awan W, Baig M, Babur M. EFFECTIVENESS OF STRETCHING EXERCISES IN SYMPTOMATIC AND ASYMPTOMATIC PHASE IN PRIMARY DYSMENORRHOEA. PJP [Internet]. 30Jun.2017 [cited 20Mar.2019];13(2):6-0. Available from: http://pjp.pps.org.pk/index.php/PJP/article/view/41