• Muhammad Tariq Department of Physiology, Kabir Medical College
  • Riffat Sultana Department of Physiology, Khyber Girls Medical College
  • Amin Ul Haq Department of Biochemistry, Khyber Girls Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan
Keywords: Erythrocytes, Heroin addiction, Smoking


Background: The harmful components of tobacco smoke nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide affect different haematological parameters. Heroin affects almost every system of the body including blood and its components. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of cigarette smoking and heroin abuse on haematological parameters especially erythrocyte indices. Method: The present study was conducted in Physiology department; Khyber Medical College Peshawar from Jan 2006 to Dec 2007. One hundred age and sex matched subjects were included in the study. The subjects were divided into three groups, i.e., 40 cigarette smokers and 40 heroin addicts, with 20 controls. Data were statistically analysed using SPSS-10. Results: The mean haemoglobin value of cigarette smokers was significantly higher as compared to control subjects (p<0.001). The mean haemoglobin value of heroin addicts was significantly lower when compared with either control group or cigarette smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion: Haematological parameters vary with smoking and heroin abuse. There should be no illusions as to the dangers of cigarettes. The combination of a highly addictive, pharmacologically active substance–nicotine–and an array of noxious chemicals cunningly packaged in highly efficient delivery mechanism can drastically affect health.

Pak J Physiol 2013;9(2):32–4


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Tariq M, Sultana R, Haq A. ERYTHROCYTES INDICES IN MALE SMOKERS AND HEROIN ADDICTS. PJP [Internet]. 31Dec.2013 [cited 9Apr.2020];9(2):32-4. Available from: