• Jawaria Ilyas Department of Physiology, Postgraduate Medical Institute/Ameer ud Din Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Noor Zahra Tehsil Headquarter Hospital, Sangla Hill, Nankana Sahib, Pakistan
  • Amer Hassan Siddique Department of Pharmacology, Postgraduate Medical Institute/Ameer ud Din Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Komal Iqbal Department of Physiology, Postgraduate Medical Institute/Ameer ud Din Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Rana Muhammad Yousaf Department of Physiology, Postgraduate Medical Institute/Ameer ud Din Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muniza Saeed Department of Physiology, Postgraduate Medical Institute/Ameer ud Din Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, High fat high carbohydrate diet, Monosodium glutamate, Obesity, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, Insulin resistance, Male SD rats


Background: Metabolic syndrome is an emerging health problem. The diets rich in fats and refined carbohydrates and monosodium glutamate are considered major risk factors for this emerging epidemic. The aim of this study was to determine whether high fat high carbohydrate (HFHC) diet, Monosodium glutamate (MSG) diet or their combination is faster/more potent inducer of MS. Methods: Twenty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 was given normal rat chow, group 2 was given HFHC diet, group 3 was given MSG in diet and group 4 was given both HFHC and MSG in their diet for 20 weeks. Body weight, blood pressure, lipid profile and glycaemic indices were determined at the end of study. Results: After 20 weeks of study, HFHC and MSG groups showed full blown Metabolic syndrome (MS) with development of obesity, hypertension, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia. However, group 4 which was given combination diet did not develop features of MS. Conclusion: Both HFHC and MSG containing diets when given alone are potent inducers of MS in rat model rather than their combination.

Pak J Physiol 2022;18(2):6‒9


Saklayen MG. The global epidemic of the metabolic syndrome. Curr Hypertens Rep 2018;20(2):12.

Senaphan K, Kukongviriyapan U, Sangartit W, Pakdeechote P, Pannangpetch P, Prachaney P, et al. Ferulic acid alleviates changes in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. Nutrients 2015;7:6446–64.

Ranasinghe P, Mathangasinghe Y, Jayawardena R, Hills AP, Misra A. Prevalence and trends of metabolic syndrome among adults in the asia-pacific region: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2017;17:101.

Aryal N, Wasti SP. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in South Asia: a systematic review. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 2016;36:255–62.

Gupta N, Goel K, Shah P, Misra A. Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention. Endocr Rev 2012;33(1):48–70.

Xu H, Li X, Adams H, Kubena K, Guo S. Etiology of metabolic syndrome and dietary intervention. Int J Mol Sci 2019;20:128.

Lozano I, Van der Werf R, Bietiger W, Seyfritz E, Peronet C, Pinget M, et al. High-fructose and high-fat diet-induced disorders in rats: impact on diabetes risk, hepatic and vascular complications. Ann Nutr Metab 2016;13:15.

Mostafa DK, Nasra RA, Zahran N, Ghoneim MT. Pleiotropic protective effects of Vitamin D against high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats: One for all. Eur J Pharmacol 2016;792:38–47.

Panchal SK, Poudyal H, Iyer A, Nazer R, Alam A, Diwan V, et al. High-carbohydrate high-fat diet–induced metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular remodeling in rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2011;57:51–64.

Boonnate P, Waraasawapati S, Hipkaeo W, Pethlert S, Sharma A, Selmi C, et al. Monosodium glutamate dietary consumption decreases pancreatic β-cell mass in adult Wistar rats. PLoS One 2015;10(6):e0131595.

Contini MDC, Fabro A, Millen N, Benmelej A, Mahieu S. Adverse effects in kidney function, antioxidant systems and histopathology in rats receiving monosodium glutamate diet. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2017;69:547–56.

Hernández Bautista RJ, Mahmoud AM, Königsberg M, López Díaz Guerrero NE. Obesity: Pathophysiology, monosodium glutamate-induced model and anti-obesity medicinal plants. Biomed Pharmacother 2019;111:503–16.

He K, Du S, Xun P, Sharma S, Wang H, Zhai F, et al. Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:1328–36.

Seiva FR, Chuffa LG, Braga CP, Amorim JP, Fernandes AA. Quercetin ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism and improves antioxidant status in postnatally monosodium glutamate-induced metabolic alterations. Food Chem Toxicol 2012;50:3556–61.

Kobyliak N, Falalyeyeva T, Boyko N, Tsyryuk O, Beregova T, Ostapchenko L. Probiotics and nutraceuticals as a new frontier in obesity prevention and management. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018;141:190–9.

Nandan P, Nayanatara AK, Poojary R, Bhagyalakshmi K, Nirupama M, Kini RD. Protective role of co-administration of vitamin D in monosodium glutamate induced obesity in female rats. J Natl Med Assoc 2018; 110(1):98–102.

Savard C, Tartaglione EV, Kuver R, Haigh WG, Farrell GC, Subramanian S, et al, Synergistic interaction of dietary cholesterol and dietary fat in inducing experimental steatohepatitis. Hepatology 2013; 57(1):81–92.

Wong SK, Chin KY, Suhaimi FH, Fairus A, Ima-Nirwana S. Animal models of metabolic syndrome: a review. Nutr Metab 2016;13:65.

Marques C, Meireles M, Norberto S, Leite J, Freitas J, Pestana D, et al. High-fat diet-induced obesity Rat model: a comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rat. Adipocyte 2016;5(1):11–21.

Nardelli TR, Ribeiro RA, Balbo SL, Vanzela EC, Carneiro EM, Boschero AC, et al. Taurine prevents fat deposition and ameliorates plasma lipid profile in monosodium glutamate-obese rats. Amino Acids 2011;41:901–8.

Hao L, Lu X, Sun M, Li K, Shen L, Wu T. Protective effects of L-arabinose in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Food Nutr Res 2015;59:28886.

Rahman MM, Alam MN, Ulla A, Sumi FA, Subhan N, Khan T, et al. Cardamom powder supplementation prevents obesity, improves glucose intolerance, inflammation and oxidative stress in liver of high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats. Lipids Health Dis 2017;16:151.

Insawang T, Selmi C, Cha’on U, Pethlert S, Yongvanit P, Areejitranusorn P, et al. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake is associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural Thai population. Nutr Metab 2012;9:50.

Shannon M, Green B, Willars G, Wilson J, Matthews N, Lamb J, et al. The endocrine disrupting potential of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on secretion of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) gut hormone and GLP-1 receptor interaction. Toxicol Lett 2017;265:97–105.

Okediran BS, Olurotimi AE, Rahman SA, Michael OG, Olukunle JO. Alterations in the lipid profile and liver enzymes of rats treated with monosodium glutamate. Sokoto J Vet Sci 2014;12:42–6.

Onaolapo AY, Odetunde I, Akintola AS, Ogundeji MO, Ajao A, Obelawo AY, et al. Dietary composition modulates impact of food-added monosodium glutamate on behaviour, metabolic status and cerebral cortical morphology in mice. Biomed. Pharmacother 2019;109:417–28.

Saikrishna K, Kumari R, Chaitanya K, Biswas S, Nayak PG, Mudgal J, et al. Combined Administration of Monosodium Glutamate and High Sucrose Diet Accelerates the Induction of Type 2 Diabetes, Vascular Dysfunction, and Memory Impairment in Rats. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2018;37:63–80.

Su Y, Feng Z, He Y, Hong L, Liu G, Li T, et al. Monosodium L-glutamate and fats change free fatty acid concentrations in intestinal contents and affect free fatty acid receptors express profile in growing pigs. Food Nutr Res 2019;63.


Download data is not yet available.
How to Cite
Ilyas J, Zahra N, Siddique A, Iqbal K, Yousaf R, Saeed M. COMPARISON OF DIET INDUCED METABOLIC SYNDROME WITH ARTIFICIALLY INDUCED METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A RAT MODEL. PJP [Internet]. 30Jun.2022 [cited 26Nov.2022];18(2):6-. Available from: