Academic stress and suicidal ideation in MDCAT repeating candidates: mediating role of depression and moderating role of age and gender
Background: This study aims to find out the mediating role of depression and moderating role of age and gender in suicidal ideation in response to academic stress among Medical & Dental Colleges Admission Test (MDCAT) repeating candidates in Pakistan. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey-based study conducted at campuses of Knowledge Inn Preparatory School (KIPS), at Bahawalpur and Multan from Feb to Jun 2018. The sample comprised of 102 MDCAT repeating candidates. Three questionnaires (a) Demographic Information Questionnaire (b) Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21, and (c) Scale for Suicidal Ideation were administered to get the responses of MDCAT repeating candidates. Results: There was a significant mediating role of depression (IE=0.64, SE=0.12, 95% LL=0.40, 95% UL=0.88) in relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation. There was a significant moderating effect of age (-0.36, SE=0.17, p=0.04, 95% LL= -0.71, 95% UL= -0.01) and non-significant moderating effect of gender (-0.19, SE=0.31, p=0.52, 95% LL= -0.82, 95% UL=0.42) on relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation respectively. Conclusion: There is a mediating role of depression and moderating role of age in suicidal ideation in MDCAT repeating candidates. Psychological counselling for thwarting the risk of suicidal ideation in MDCAT repeating candidates on periodic basis is recommended.
Pak J Physiol 2020;16(3):7–10
University of Health Sciences. Available from: http://uhs.edu.pk. [Accessed 2 Sep 2019]
Stress Definition. Available from: http://dying.about.com/od/ glossary/g/stress.htm [Accessed 2 Sep 2019]
Naseem S, Munaf S. Suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, stress, and life satisfaction of medical, engineering, and social sciences students. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2017;29(3):422−7.
Prasla M. Adolescence depression in Pakistan: A new horizon for research. J Pak Med Stud 2012;2(4):160−1.
Bansal CP, Yamuna S. Mental health in adolescents. In: Anupam AK, Outta P, Jain P, Yadav RKG, (Eds). Advances in Pediatrics. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd.; 2012.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. (5th ed). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP). Violence Prevention: Suicide Prevention. [Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/index.html [Accessed 26 Aug 2019]
Krishna KP, Geeta MG, Gopalan AV. Deliberate self-poisoning in children. Indian Pediatr 2005;42:582−6.
Daily Times. Suicide Trends in Rich and Poor Countries. Available from: http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp? page=2010%5C09%5C28%5Cstory_28-9 2010_pg3_6
The News International. The menace of student suicide finally grips Pakistan too. Available from: https://www.thenews.com.pk/ archive/print/622719-themenace-of-student-suicide-finally-grips-pakistan-too
Thapar A, Collishaw S, Pine DS, Thapar AK. Depression in adolescence. Lancet 2012;379(9820):1056−67.
McFarlane S, Younger N, Francis D, Gordon-Strachan G, Wilks R. Risk behaviours and adolescent depression in Jamaica. Int J Adolesc Youth 2015;19(4):458−67.
Consoli A, Peyre H, Speranza M, Hassler C, Falissard B, Touchette E, et al. Suicidal behaviors in depressed adolescents: role of perceived relationships in the family. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Ment Health 2013;7(8). DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-7-8
Norhayati I, Noh A, Melia W. Psychological factors as predictors of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Malaysia. PLOS ONE 2014;9(10). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110670
Bayram N, Bilgel N. The prevalence and socio-demographic correlations of depression, anxiety and stress among a group of university students. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2008;43(8):667−72.
Haldorsen H, Bak NH, Dissing A, Petersson B. Stress and symptoms of depression among medical students at the University of Copenhagen. Scan J Public Health 2014;42(1):89−95.
Jayanthi P, Thirunavukarasu M, Rajkumar R. Academic stress and depression among adolescents: A cross sectional study. Indian Pediatr 2015;52:217–9.
Mathew N, Khakha DC, Qureshi A, Sagar R, Khakha CC. Stress and coping among adolescents in selected schools in the capital city of India. Indian J Pediatr 2015;82:809–16.
Ang RP, Huan VS. Relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation: testing for depression as a mediator using multiple regression. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2006;37(2):133–43. DOI: 10.1007/s10578-006-0023-8
Adetoun Olubanke Oladelea, Isaac Taiwo Oladele. Depression and suicidal ideation among college students with and without learning disabilities in Nigeria. Eur J Soc Behav Sci 2016;2084-100. DOI: 10.15405/ejsbs.187
World Health Organization. Preventing Suicide. A resource for prison officers. Mental and Behavioral Disorders. Department of Mental Health; 2010.
Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF. Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd ed). Sydney: Psychology Foundation; 2004.
Ayub N. Validation of the Urdu translation of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. Assessment 2008;15(3):287–93. DOI: 10.1177/1073191107312240
Maya Z. Prevalence of suicidal ideations among first-year students at the university of the Western Cape. Thesis submitted for MA (Research) Psychology. Cape Town, South Africa: University of the Western Cape; 2016.
Copyright (c) 2020 Pakistan Journal of Physiology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Pakistan Journal of Physiology, Pak J Physiol, PJP is FREE for research and academic purposes. It can be downloaded and stored, printed, cited and quoted with full reference of, and acknowledgement to the PJP.