Levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in patients with Major Depressive Disorder and its relation to coping strategies
Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an effective indicator of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). This study aimed to determine the relation of serum BDNF levels in patients of MDD and association of serum BDNF level with coping strategies. Methods: It was a case control study which recruited never treated depressed participants of 18–55 years age. Non-probability (convenience) sampling technique was used. One way ANOVA was applied to investigate the effect of BDNF on COPE, and Spearman’s correlation was applied to measure the association between BDNF and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Results: There was significant negative moderate correlation between serum BDNF levels and HAM-D (Spearman’s r= -0.29, p=0.007) indicating more severely depressed patients had lower BDNF scores. There was a significant relationship between BDNF and COPE which showed the patients with more Serum BDNF level are coping in a better way (p=0.004). Serum BDNF was significantly lower in patients with emotion focused (Range: 13–17 μg/L) and appraised focused (Range: 16.6–20 μg/L) group (15±4 μg/L and 16±4.8 μg/L respectively) than in problem focused (Range: 10–22 μg/L) and healthy participants (Range: 18–21.5 μg/L) (18.4±3 μg/L and 20±5.6 μg/L respectively). Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between BDNF and COPE, indicating low Serum BDNF level triggered the major depression in which Serum BDNF level was lower in participants of emotion focused and appraised focused group than in problem focused and without MDD group. The inverse moderate correlation was found between serum BDNF levels and HAM-D.
Pak J Physiol 2020:16(4):24–8
Collins PY, Patel V, Joestl SS, March D, Insel TR, Daar AS, et al. Grand challenges in global mental health. Nature. 2011;475(7354):27–30.
Gu L, Xie J, Long J, Chen Q, Chen Q, Pan R, et al. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder in mainland china: a systematic review. PloS One 2013;8(6):e65356.
Kessler RC, Akiskal HS, Ames M, Birnbaum H, Greenberg P, Hirschfeld RM, et al. Prevalence and effects of mood disorders on work performance in a nationally representative sample of US workers. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163(9):1561–8.
Wittchen HU, Jacobi F. Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe--a critical review and appraisal of 27 studies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2005;15(4):357–76.
Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990–2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 1997;349(9064):1498–504.
Dunlop DD, Song J, Lyons JS, Manheim LM, Chang RW. Racial/ethnic differences in rates of depression among preretirement adults. Am J Public Health 2003;93(11):1945–52.
Ohayon MM, Schatzberg AF. Using chronic pain to predict depressive morbidity in the general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60(1):39–47.
Folkman S. Stress: appraisal and coping. In: Gellman MD, Turner JR. (eds) Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine New York: Spirnger; 2013. p. 1913–5.
Aranda MP, Chae DH, Lincoln KD, Taylor RJ, Woodward AT, Chatters LM. Demographic correlates of DSM‐IV major depressive disorder among older African Americans, Black Caribbeans, and non-Hispanic Whites: results from the National Survey of Am Life. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2012;27(9):940–7.
Piccinelli M, Wilkinson G. Gender differences in depression: Critical review. Br J Psychiatry 2000;177(6):486–92.
Molendijk ML, Bus BA, Spinhoven P, Penninx BW, Kenis G, Prickaerts J, et al. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in major depressive disorder: state–trait issues, clinical features and pharmacological treatment. Mol Psychiatry 2011;16(11):1088–95.
Baris HN, Chan WM, Andrews C, Behar DM, Donovan DJ, Morton CC, et al. Complex cytogenetic rearrangements at the DURS1 locus in syndromic Duane retraction syndrome. Clin Case Rep 2013;1(1):30–7.
Gum AM, King-Kallimanis B, Kohn R. Prevalence of mood, anxiety, and substance-abuse disorders for older Americans in the national comorbidity survey-replication. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2009;17(9):769–81.
Andersen I, Thielen K, Nygaard E, Diderichsen F. Social inequality in the prevalence of depressive disorders. J Epidemiol Community Health 2009;63(7):575–81.
Shi J, Zhang Y, Liu F, Li Y, Wang J, Flint J, et al. Associations of educational attainment, occupation, social class and major depressive disorder among Han Chinese women. PloS One 2014;9(1):e86674.
Dohrenwend BP, Levav I, Shrout PE, Schwartz S, Naveh G, Link BG, et al. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders: the causation-selection issue. Science 1992;255(5047):946–52.
Rai D, Zitko P, Jones K, Lynch J, Araya R. Country-and individual-level socioeconomic determinants of depression: multilevel cross-national comparison. Br J Psychiatry 2013;202(3):195–203.
Naveen G, Thirthalli J, Rao MG, Varambally S, Christopher R, Gangadhar BN. Positive therapeutic and neurotropic effects of yoga in depression: A comparative study. Indian J Psychiatry 2013;55(Suppl 3):S400–4.
Varambally S, Naveen GH, Rao MG, Thirthalli J, Sharma R, Christopher R, et al. Low serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in non-suicidal out-patients with depression: Relation to depression scores. Indian J Psychiatry 2013;55(Suppl 3):S397–9.
Yoshimura R, Mitoma M, Sugita A, Hori H, Okamoto T, Umene W, et al. Effects of paroxetine or milnacipran on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in depressed patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2007;31(5):1034–7.
Nipp RD, El‐Jawahri A, Fishbein JN, Eusebio J, Stagl JM, Gallagher ER, et al. The relationship between coping strategies, quality of life, and mood in patients with incurable cancer. Cancer 2016;122(13):2110–6.
Khazem LR, Law KC, Green BA, Anestis MD. Examining the relationship between coping strategies and suicidal desire in a sample of United States military personnel. Compr Psychiatry 2015;57:2–9.
Aarts JW, Deckx L, van Abbema DL, Tjan‐Heijnen VC, van den Akker M, Buntinx F. The relation between depression, coping and health locus of control: differences between older and younger patients, with and without cancer. Psychooncology 2015;24(8):950–7.
Copyright (c) 2020 Pakistan Journal of Physiology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Pakistan Journal of Physiology, Pak J Physiol, PJP is FREE for research and academic purposes. It can be downloaded and stored, printed, cited and quoted with full reference of, and acknowledgement to the PJP.